Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that the enzymes required to synthesise and metabolise vitamin D are magnesium dependent. Recent observational studies have found that magnesium intake significantly interacts with vitamin D levels and risk of mortality.
In order to understand the interplay of magnesium and vitamin D in an era where the majority of adults do not meet their recommended daily intakes, a team of researchers tested the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation affects vitamin D metabolism dependent on baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration.
A double-blind, randomised, controlled study of 180 participants aged 40-85 years old tested the supplementation of either a personalised magnesium or placebo treatment on plasma concentrations of various vitamin D markers including 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3].
Results found that magnesium supplementation interacted with baseline plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D in affecting the concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, and 24,25(OH)2D3. However, the required concentration of 25(OH)D for optimising vitamin D metabolite levels varied depending on the metabolite. For example, 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 levels increased when 25(OH)D were at 30ng/mL, while 25(OH)D2 levels increased with increasing 25(OH)D levels from 30-50ng/mL.
The results of this study suggest that optimal magnesium status may be important for optimising 25(OH)D status, particularly in nutrient deficient populations.
- Dai Q, Zhu X, Manson JE, et al. Magnesium status and supplementation influence vitamin D status and metabolism: results from a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2018;108(6):1249-1258. [Abstract]