Gestational Diabetes (GDM) and Vitamin D Deficiency

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The implications of vitamin D deficiency are broad and especially relevant in pregnancy. Maternal vitamin D deficiency can affect normal growth, birth weight, bone development and immune function. It has also been associated with a greater risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia. 
 
A growing and significant body of evidence also indicates that low levels of vitamin D in pregnancy can influence the incidence of gestational diabetes; an alarmingly common condition that carries a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life and can affect various health outcomes in newborn babies.
 
In this infographic we pay attention to the therapeutic role vitamin D can play in the prevention and treatment of gestational diabetes. We explore the various mechanisms relating vitamin D deficiency to insulin resistance and review the proven effects of supplementation. 
 

REFERENCES

  1. Moses RG, Morris G, Petocz P, et al. Impact of the potential new diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Australia. Med J Aust 2011;194:338-1340. [Full text]
     
  2. Aghajafari F, Nagulesapillai T, Ronksley PE, et al. Association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 2013;346:f1169. [Full text]
     
  3. Teale GR, Cunningham CE. Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women in rural Victoria. Aust NZ J Obstet and Gynaecol. Published online 1 April  2010. [Abstract]
     
  4. Carr DB, Gabbe S. Gestational diabetes: detection, management, and implications. Clin Diabetes 1998;16(1):4. [Full text]
     
  5. Buchanan TA, Xiang AH. Gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 2005;15(3):485-491. [Full text]
     
  6. Kelly L, Evans L. Messenger D. Controversies around gestational diabetes. Practical information for family doctors. Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien 2005;5:688-695. [Full text]
     
  7. Sung CC, Liao MT, Lu, KC, et al. Role of vitamin D in insulin resistance. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012:634195. [Full text]
     
  8. Thorand B, Zierer A, Huth C, et al. Effect of serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on risk for type 2 diabetes may be partially mediated by subclinical inflammation; Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study. Diabetes Care 2011;10:2320-2322. [Full text]
     
  9. Riachy R, Vandewalle B, Moerman E, et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 protects human pancreatic islets against cytokine-induced apoptosis via down-regulation of the Fas receptor. Apoptosis 2006;11(2):151-159. [Abstract]
     
  10. Seshadri KG, Tamilselvana B, Rajendrana A. Role of vitamin D in diabetes. J Endocrinol Metab 2011;7:7-56. [Full text]
     
  11. Manna P, Jain, SJ. Vitamin D up-regulates glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and glucose utilization mediated by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) activation and H2S formation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. J Biol Chem 2012;7;287. [Full text]
 

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melissalee's picture
Melissa Lee
Melissa is a designer turned nutritionist, who for the past 6 years has been combining the two modalities to create purposeful designs for various health publications and websites. Having initially studied Multimedia Systems Design, she then went on to complete a BHSc in Nutritional Medicine which led to her involvement in the integrative medicine industry and eventually to FX Medicine.